Avocat

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Caloric intake
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mg Potassium
Produit cru
seasonality of the product
spring, autumn, winter
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Description

  • The avocado is the fruit of the avocado tree (Persea americana) which belongs to the Lauraceae family.
  • It is a major agricultural fruit, originally grown in Mexico and Central America (Guzman-Rodriguez, 2013). It is usually consumed as a vegetable.
  • There are several varieties of avocado, including Ettinger, Fuerte, Hass, Bacon and Pinkerton among others (CTIFL, INTERFEL, 2011).

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • The avocado is a medium-sized fruit with a pleasant creamy and smooth texture (Fulgoni, 2013).
  • The colour of the skin may be bluish-purple or dark reddish due to the presence of anthocyanins, pigments with antioxidant activity (Corrales-García, 2019).
  • A study on the profile of four avocado cultivars (Barker, Collinson, Fortuna and Geada) identified 84 volatile compounds:
    • Hexanal, ethyl acetate, methyl dodecanoate, α-bergamotene and β-caryophyllene were present in all 4 cultivars.
    • (E)-2-pentenal and ethyl acetate, responsible for the fruity aroma, were present in the Fortuna cultivar and the Collinson cultivar respectively.
    • Benzaldehyde, responsible for the fruit and nutty aroma, was present at a higher concentration in the Geada cultivar and in trace amounts in the Barker cultivar (Galvao, 2016).
  • Once the fruit falls from the avocado tree, the ripening process takes 5 to 7 days at room temperature. The fruit is considered ripe when it yields to light finger pressure (Di Stefano, 2017).

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals).

  • The avocado contains different polyphenols including perseitol, quinic, trans-cinnamic, pantothenic and abscisic acids, as well as catechin, whose concentrations decrease during the ripening process (Contreras-Gutierrez, 2013). Conversely, ferulic acid and ρ-coumaric acid concentrations increase (Contreras-Gutierrez, 2013).
  • Une équipe italienne a évalué les profils phénoliques de six variétés d’avocat cultivées en Sicile à des stades de maturation différents. Dix-neuf composés phénoliques ont été détectés dans les extraits de pulpe d’avocat. L’acide gallique, l’acide sinapinique, la vanilline, l’acide ρ-coumarique et l’acide gentisique n’étaient présents que dans les fruits mûrs. Au contraire, l’épicatéchine a diminué avec la maturation des fruits (Di Stefano, 2017).
  • The antioxidants contained in this fruit give them a neuroprotective effect. In fact, they make it possible to limit the oxidative stress at the origin of significant neuronal damage found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s (Ameer, 2016).
  • The fruit may also improve high cholesterol and play an important role in cardiovascular health. The lipophilic fraction of the avocado inhibits the growth of prostate cancer cells, induces the death of breast cancer cells and suppresses liver damage (Di Stefano, 2017).
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual 2020. Consultée le 27/07/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Ameer K. Avocado as a Major Dietary Source of Antioxidants and Its Preventive Role in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Advances in Neurobiology. 2016;12:337–54.
  • Contreras-Gutiérrez PK, Hurtado-Fernández E, Gómez-Romero M, Ignacio Hormaza J, Carrasco-Pancorbo A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A. Determination of changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana) by two CE-MS approaches (targeted and non-targeted). Electrophoresis. 2013;34(19):2928-42.
  • Corrales-García JE, Del Rosario García-Mateos M, Martínez-López E, Barrientos-Priego AF, Ybarra-Moncada MC, Ibarra-Estrada E, et al. Anthocyanin and Oil Contents, Fatty Acids Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican Landrace Avocado Fruits. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands). 2019;74(2):210–5.
  • CTIFL, INTERFEL, 2011. Guide des fruits et légumes en restauration hors-domicile.
  • Di Stefano VD, Avellone G, Bongiorno D, Indelicato S, Massenti R, Bianco RL. Quantitative evaluation of the phenolic profile in fruits of six avocado (Persea americana) cultivars by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-heated electrospray-mass spectrometry.International Journal of Food Properties. 2017;20(6): 1302–12.
  • Fulgoni VL 3rd, Dreher M, Davenport AJ. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008. Nutr J. 2013;12:1.
  • Galvao M de S, Nunes ML, Constant PBL, Narain N, Galvao M de S, Nunes ML, et al. Identification of volatile compounds in cultivars barker, collinson, fortuna and geada of avocado (Persea americana, Mill.) fruit. Food Science and Technology. 2016;36(3): 439–47.
  • Guzmán-Rodríguez JJ, López-Gómez R, Suárez-Rodríguez LM, Salgado-Garciglia R, Rodríguez-Zapata LC, Ochoa-Zarzosa A, López-Meza JE. Antibacterial activity of defensin PaDef from avocado fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) expressed in endothelial cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:986273.
  • Lerma-García MJ, Ramis-Ramos G, Herrero-Martínez JM, Simó-Alfonso EF. Classification of vegetable oils according to their botanical origin using amino acid profiles established by direct infusion mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21(22):3751-5.
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
Composition and analysis