Brocoli

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Caloric intake
-
Produit cuit (à la vapeur)
seasonality of the product
autumn
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D

Description

  • Broccoli (Brasscia oleracea var. italica) belongs to the Brassicaceae (cruciferous) family.
  • Broccoli originates from Italy. Its ancestor is the wild cabbage (Les fruits et légumes frais).

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • Broccoli owes its green colour to chlorophyll. Chlorophyll degradation is the main reason for post-harvest yellowing of broccoli (potential role of jasmonic acid) (Fang, 2020).
  • Brassicaceae plants are known for their taste, mainly bitter, and their sulphurous and pungent aroma.
  • Compounds responsible for broccoli taste and aroma include glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, especially isothiocyanates, but also volatile sulfur compounds. In general, glucosinolates provide bitterness and he numerous isothiocyanates impart pungency (Bell, 2018).
  • The presence of volatile substances in broccoli is influenced by temperature and storage time. As time and temperature increase, undesirable aroma volatiles, such as dimethyl sulfide, increase while desirable volatiles, such as 2-ethyl furan, benzene acetaldehyde, and 2-pentyl furan, decrease (Wheeler, 2018).

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

  • Broccoli is known for its high glucosinolate content (Oliviero, 2014).
  • The cooking method influences the concentration of glucosinolates. Steaming best preserves these compounds (+17%), in contrast to cooking with cold water at the start (-50%) and cooking with hot water at the start (-41%) (Bongoni, 2014).
  • Epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of broccoli, due to its content of glucosinolates and their breakdown products, may reduce the risk of developing certain forms of cancers (Miao, 2016).
  • Glucoraphanin, an organic compound of the glucosinolate family, is predominant in broccoli. When we chew broccoli, glucoraphanin is transformed into sulforaphane. It is the latter that is thought to have chemoprotective properties against cancer (Charron, 2017; Yagishita, 2019).
  • Consumption of broccoli in a healthy adult is thought to alter the abundance of certain gut bacterial communities. It was also shown that pathways involved in the functions of the endocrine system, in transport, in catabolism and energy metabolism were increased (Kaczmarek, 2019).

Broccoli is also a good source of polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity. It may therefore play an important role in the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases (Drabińska, 2018).

  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual 2020. Consultée le 18/08/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual pour le calcul des apports nutritionnels CALNUT 2020. Consultée le 15/09/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Bell L, Oloyede OO, Lignou S, Wagstaff C, Methven L. Taste and Flavor Perceptions of Glucosinolates, Isothiocyanates, and Related Compounds. Molecular Nutrition Food Research. 2018;62(18):1700990.
  • Bongoni R, Verkerk R, Steenbekkers B, Dekker M, Stieger M. Evaluation of Different Cooking Conditions on Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) to Improve the Nutritional Value and Consumer Acceptance. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2014 ; 69(3):228-34
  • Charron C, Vinyard B, Ross S, Seifried H, Jeffery E, Novotny J. Absorption and Metabolism of Isothiocyanates Formed from Broccoli Glucosinolates: Effects of Daily Consumption. The Faseb Journal. 2017;31(1):646-53.
  • Drabińska N, Ciska E, Szmatowicz B, Krupa-Kozak U. Broccoli by-products improve the nutraceutical potential of gluten-free mini sponge cakes. Food Chemistry. 2018;267(1):170-7.
  • Fang H, Luo F, Li P, Zhou Q, Zhou X, Wei B, Cheng S, Zhou H, Ji S. Potential of jasmonic acid (JA) in accelerating postharvest yellowing of broccoli by promoting its chlorophyll degradation. Food Chemistry. 2020;309(1):125735.
  • Kaczmarek JL, Liu X, Charron CS, Novotny JA, Jeffery EH, Seifried HE, Ross SA, Miller MJ, Swanson KS, Holscher HD. Broccoli consumption affects the human gastrointestinal microbiota. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2019;63(1):27-34.
  • Les fruits et légumes frais. Brocoli. [en ligne]. [Consulté le 07/05/2020] disponible à l’adresse : www.lesfruitsetlegumesfrais.com
  • Miao H, Wang J, Cai C, Chang J, Zhao Y, Wang Q. Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Broccoli. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. 2016:16-1.
  • Oliviero T, Verkerk R, Van Boekel MA, Dekker M. Effect of water content and temperature on inactivation kinetics of myrosinase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). Food Chem. 2014;163:197-201.
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
  • Wheeler J, Hammock HA, Sams CE, Luckett CR, Bjorkman T, Davis JM, Gomez M. Storage Temperature and Time Impacts Glucosinolates and Flavor Volatiles of Broccoli Grown on the East Coast. American society for horticultural science. 2018.
  • Yagishita Y, Fahey JW, Dinkova-Kostova AT, Kensler TW. Broccoli or Sulforaphane: Is It the Source or Dose That Matters? Molecules. 2019;24(19):3593.
Composition and analysis