Ail

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Caloric intake
-
mg Potassium
Cooked product (sautéed)
seasonality of the product
summer, autumn
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Description

  • Garlic is a plant belonging to the Liliaceaefamily, of the Alliumgenus and the sativum species.
  • It is of Asian origin. Most of the garlic we consume comes from Southern Europe, from Italy, Spain and Southern France
  • It is one of the oldest cultivated medicinal plants. Garlic has been consumed for over 5,000 years.
  • China is the leading producer of garlic, accounting for almost 85% of world production (FranceAgriMer, 2019).

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • A head of garlic contains about ten cloves, whose colour can vary from white to pink (Interfel – Les fruits et légumes frais).
  • The pungent odour of fresh garlic is mainly due to the presence of thiosulfinates, organosulphur compounds, and their degradation products (Abe, 2020).
  • Garlic also contains alliin or S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, an odourless derivative of cysteine. Crushed garlic allows the conversion of alliin to allicin (Abe, 2020). The latter, which has antimicrobial properties, produces odouriferous compounds, such as diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), characteristic of fresh crushed garlic (Yamaguchi, 2020).

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

  • Garlic is considered an important source of total phenolic compounds (Martins, 2016), the concentration of which varies with cultivar (Chen, 2013).
  • Garlic has been particularly studied for its health benefits: cardiovascular disease risk reduction, anti-tumour and antimicrobial effects, reduction of blood pressure and regulation of blood glucose (Ried, 2008Bayan, 2014Nicastro, 2015AICR/WCRF, 2018). These properties may be explained by the presence of compounds such as quercetin and allixin, as well as numerous organosulfur compounds (allicin, alliin and allyl sulfides) (AICR/WCRF, 2018). Among these compounds, allyl sulfides have an inhibitory function on carcinogenesis (Hong, 2000Milner, 2001)
  • Furthermore, S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide is reported to have many in vivo functions, such as prevention of diabetes, myocardial ischemia, liver injury, platelet aggregation, and elevated blood ethanol (Yamaguchi, 2020).
  • A meta-analysis found that an average consumption of 900 mg of garlic per day over 8 weeks results in:
    • a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol (weighted mean differences -17.20 mg/dl);
    • a reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive patients (weighted mean differences -5.07 mmHG);
    • better fasting blood glucose in diabetic patients (weighted mean differences -10.90 mg/dl) (Wan, 2019).
  • Abe K, Hori Y, Myoda T. Volatile compounds of fresh and processed garlic. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 2020;19(2):1585-93.
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual 2020. Consultée le 23/07/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • AICR/WCRF. Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Cancer: A Global Perspective, 2018 [en ligne]. [Consulté le 27/02/2020] Disponible sur : https://www.aicr.org/cancer-prevention/food-facts/garlic/
  • Bayan L, Koulivand PH, Gorji A. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects. Avicenna J Phytomed, 2014; 4(1): 1-14.
  • Chen S, Shen X, Cheng S, Li P, Du J, Chang Y, Meng H. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e79730.
  • FranceAgriMer. L’ail en 2018-2019 – Bilan de campagne [en ligne]. Mai 2019. Réseau des nouvelles des marchés. 4 p. [Consulté le 02/03/2020] Disponible sur : https://rnm.franceagrimer.fr/bilan_campagne?ail
  • Hong YS, Ham YA, Choi JH, Kim J. Effects of allyl sulfur compounds and garlic extract on the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and p53 in non small cell lung cancer cell lines. Exp Mol Med. 2000 ;32(3):127-34
  • Interfel – Ail Carte d’identité [En ligne]. [Consulté le 27/02/2020]. Disponible à l’adresse : https://www.lesfruitsetlegumesfrais.com
  • Martins N, Petropoulos S, Ferreira ICFR. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review. Food Chemistry. 2016;211:41-50.
  • Milner JA. Mechanisms by which garlic and allyl sulfur compounds suppress carcinogen bioactivation. Garlic and carcinogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;492:69-81.
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Nicastro HL, Ross SA, Milner JA. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015;8(3):181-9
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
  • Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP, Fakler P, Sullivan T. Effect of garlic on blood pressure: A systematic review and
    meta-analysis. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2008;8:13
  • Shin N-R, Kwon H-J, Ko J-W, Kim J-S, Lee I-C, Kim J-C, et al. S-Allyl cysteine reduces eosinophilic airway inflammation and mucus overproduction on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma model. International Immunopharmacology. 2019;68:124-30.
  • Wan Q, Li N, Du L, Zhao R, Yi M, Xu Q, et al. Allium vegetable consumption and health: An umbrella review of meta‐analyses of multiple health outcomes. Food Science & Nutrition. 2019;7(8):2451-70.
  • Yamaguchi Y, Kumagai H. Characteristics, biosynthesis, decomposition, metabolism and functions of the garlic odour precursor, S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 2020;19(2):1528-35
Composition and analysis